We all have them – positive memories of personal events that are a delight to recall, and painful recollections that we would rather forget. A new study reveals that what we do with our emotional memories and how they affect us has a lot to do with our gender, personality and the methods we use (often without awareness) to regulate our feelings.
[ ]…The researchers used questionnaires and verbal cues to assess personality and to elicit more than 100 autobiographical memories in each of 71 participants (38 of them women). Their analysis revealed that both men and women who were high in extroversion (gregarious, assertive, stimulus-seeking) tended to remember more positive than negative life events. Men who were high in neuroticism tended to recall a greater proportion of negative memories than men who were low in neuroticism, while women who were high in neuroticism tended to return to the same negative memories again and again, a process called rumination.
Rumination is known to be associated with depression, Florin Dolcos said.
“Depressed people recollect those negative memories and as a result they feel sad,” he said. “And as a result of feeling sad, the tendency is to have more negative memories recollected. It’s a kind of a vicious circle.”
None of the study subjects had been diagnosed with depression or other emotional disorders, but, as might be expected, both male and female participants were likely to experience a lower mood after recalling negative autobiographical memories. (Positive memories generally preceded a more positive mood, but the association was indirect and mediated by extroversion, the researchers reported.)
The most pronounced differences between men and women involved the effects of the emotional strategies they used when recalling negative autobiographical memories. Men who engaged in reappraisal, making an effort to think differently about their memories, were likely to recall more positive memories than their peers, while men who used suppression, trying to tamp down their negative emotional responses, saw no pronounced effect on the recall of positive or negative memories. In women, however, suppression was significantly associated with the recall of negative memories and with a lower mood afterward.
“I think that the most important thing here is that we really need to look concomitantly at sex- and personality-related differences and to acknowledge that these factors have a different impact on the way we record our memories, on what we are doing with our memories, and later, how what we are doing with our memories is impacting our emotional well-being,” said Sanda Dolcos.
The findings are instructive for both men and women, she said. Being more outgoing, interrupting rumination and using reappraisal seems to work best for men and women as a strategy for dealing with negative memories and cherishing the positive ones, she said.
So some – let’s say men – have similar bad experiences. Some of them are what – better at putting those bad memories in a little box or are they truly better at developing coping mechanisms. If some men or women are better at denial that would explain why some people make the same mistakes in their relationships or political allegiances or career mistakes, over and over again. That ability to shrug things off might have some immediate benefit in terms of mood, but how about in terms of applying lessons learned. Those that ruminate – put those bad memories on the mental Ferris wheel would be the ones to be concerned about. Something terrible to maybe just unpleasant happened and it gets churned around over and over again. The inability to find a way forward is terrible. I’ve experienced about some short term personal issues that just get trapped like an old vinyl LP with a scratch, the lyrics repeated over and over. They have eventually gotten to the point that I get tired of them. The OK that’s enough of that, its time to move on point. It must be horrible to have that feeling over a memory persist for months or years.
The photo is from Brian McCarty’s web site. His About page reads,
Brian McCarty is a Memphis-born toy photographer and director/producer. Working with toys for over 15 years, McCarty’s unique and innovative vision has attracted a huge international following. His postmodern integration of concept and character has earned McCarty’s photography a prominent position in the so-called “Art-Toy” movement. McCarty is featured in several books chronicling the artistic movement such as Vinyl Will Kill, Dot Dot Dash, and Toys: New Designs from the Art-Toy Revolution. His first monograph, titled Art-Toys, was released in 2010 by Los Angeles based Baby Tattoo Books.
I have some inexplicable fascination with photos of toys seeming to cope with the hazards of the real world.
Flamboyant Tea Party Rep. Allen West (R-FL) said at town hall meeting last night that “he’s heard” of up to 80 Democratic congressmen who are members of the Communist Party. The entire House Democratic Caucus is 190 members, so West is claiming that almost half are card-carrying Communists. Not surprisingly, he would not name names.
Is West five years old, suffer from some kind of mental incapacity. Who knows. I have heard that West is a necrophiliac and engages in bestiality. Since I have heard that, that makes it true and in no way is it irresponsible or immoral to spread my conclusions. West is a conservative and a self proclaimed Christian and man of values. If West, by his example, says it is moral to think and reason in this manner, than it must be moral and rational to think West is a degenerate until he proves otherwise. I also understand that he likes to dress up in his Nazi uniform when having degenerate sex.
Some short history about the labor movement in the U.S. by the Smithsonian for the short attention span internet age. The entry includes Frances Perkins, Samuel Gompers and César Chávez, but I’ll just post part of the entry on Perkins (1880-1965). Perkins makes Sarah Palin look like like a scared gerbil on a treadmill,
That Frances Perkins devoted so much of her life to the plight of the American worker is noteworthy in itself. However, the fact that she also blazed a trail for women in American politics makes her accomplishments all the more extraordinary. While organizers like Samuel Gompers attempted to enact labor reform from within the labor community, Perkins attacked the same problems from the level of city, state, and finally national government.
Perkins was a pioneer in women’s issues in addition to her role in labor reform. Originally born Fanny Coralie Perkins, she later changed her first name to Frances because she thought people would take her more seriously. In later life she shocked many in polite society when she refused to take her husband’s name after marriage.
Perkins’s interest in social reform began during her years at Mt. Holyoke College, when she joined the National Consumers League, a group organized to improve labor conditions through consumer pressure. After college she became a teacher and spent holidays working in settlement houses and other social service organizations. In 1909 she won a fellowship to study at the New York School of Philanthropy, where she met many of the city’s leading reformers. In 1910 she received a master’s degree in social work from Columbia University. At the same time, as head of the New York City Consumers League, she monitored workers’ conditions and lobbied the state legislature on their behalf. When Perkins’s acquaintance Al Smith won the New York governorship in 1918, he invited her to sit on the governing board of the state labor department. In that capacity she became known as an expert in both industrial regulation and labor-management mediation.
In 1928, Franklin D. Roosevelt, recently elected governor of New York, appointed Perkins as head of the state labor department. For a woman to assume such a post was unprecedented. It was also the beginning of a close working relationship between Roosevelt and Perkins. Four years later, after Roosevelt was elected president, he invited Perkins to serve as his secretary of labor. During their years together, Perkins was an integral part of Roosevelt’s response to the Great Depression, and an advocate of social security, wage and hour regulation, and the abolition of child labor. She distanced herself from labor leaders but earned their respect as she deftly managed some of the era’s most volatile labor disputes.
As Perkins rose in prominence and position, she was forced to become more acutely aware of her status as a woman. After all, at the time she joined the New York state government, women in many states were still two years away from being allowed to vote. As a consequence, she was very careful about her demeanor and appearance when interacting with her male colleagues. On the subject of dress, she once remarked: “Many good and intelligent women do dress in ways that are very attractive and pretty, but don’t particularly invite confidence in their common sense, integrity or sense of justice.”
You can view this as a five minute long commercial for the travel industry ot an experimental short film about travel, Obus – The Traveller
Written, Directed and Photographed by: Liam Gilmour, Peter Ryle and Tomas Friml
Styling: Nadja Mott
Hair and Makeup: Samantha Coles
Model: Erin Jolley w/ Giant Management