Emilie du Chatelet (1706 – 1749) – Mathematics and physics.
Caroline Herschel (1750 – 1848) – Astronomer.
Mary Anning (1799 – 1847) – Anatomy, geology, paleontology and scientific illustration.
Mary Somerville (1780 – 1872) – Astronomy, chemistry, physics and mathematics.
Maria Mitchell (1818 – 1889) – First female astronomy professor in the United States.
Lise Meitner (1878 – 1968) – Math and physics. Invented the term “nuclear fission” based on her experiments.
Irène Curie-Joliot (1897 – 1956) – Daughter of the famous Curie family. Chemistry and physic. Like her parents, her experiments contributed to her death.
Barbara McClintock (1902 – 1992) – Molecular cellular biologist and geneticist.
Dorothy Hodgkin (1910 – 1994) – Chemist and X-ray crystallographer.
Rosalind Franklin (1920 – 1958) – Physical chemistry and X-ray crystallographer. Major contributor to the discovery of the structure of DNA.
More details at the link.
October of 1949: Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New Worlds, reads Orwell’s newly published 1984 and writes him a letter. Huxley states how much he likes the book, but cannot resist saying that he believes his vision of the future is probably more accurate:
Agreeing with all that the critics have written of it, I need not tell you, yet once more, how fine and how profoundly important the book is. May I speak instead of the thing with which the book deals — the ultimate revolution? The first hints of a philosophy of the ultimate revolution — the revolution which lies beyond politics and economics, and which aims at total subversion of the individual’s psychology and physiology — are to be found in the Marquis de Sade, who regarded himself as the continuator, the consummator, of Robespierre and Babeuf. The philosophy of the ruling minority in Nineteen Eighty-Four is a sadism which has been carried to its logical conclusion by going beyond sex and denying it. Whether in actual fact the policy of the boot-on-the-face can go on indefinitely seems doubtful. My own belief is that the ruling oligarchy will find less arduous and wasteful ways of governing and of satisfying its lust for power, and these ways will resemble those which I described in Brave New World. I have had occasion recently to look into the history of animal magnetism and hypnotism, and have been greatly struck by the way in which, for a hundred and fifty years, the world has refused to take serious cognizance of the discoveries of Mesmer, Braid, Esdaile, and the rest.
They both saw a dystopian future. Though Huxley thought that brutality and prisons were banal and time-consuming way to subdue the masses if nothing else. He saw a future where authoritarian leaders – a combination of political and business leaders – would start conditioning infants with hypnosis. I see a little of both Huxley and Orwell in modern societies. Everyone is exposed to certain cultural conditioning from birth. Much of the nation always seems to think we should be at war with someone. I’m not an anti-drug zealot – who thinks drug companies are out to get everyone hooked on anti-depressants and tranqulizers – while using them as a crutch is not a good thing, those drugs are be very helpful to some people. Though we do have a society that equates alcohol ( certainly a drug) consumption with patriotism and being sociable.
In other words, not only was Mary Shelley pregnant during much of the period that she was writing Frankenstein, but she had already suffered the birth and death of an infant. Unsurprisingly, she was tormented by the loss: A journal entry in 1815 reads, “Dream that my little baby came to life again; that it had only been cold, and that we rubbed it before the fire, and it lives.” The echoes of Frankenstein—in which the scientist, who hopes to “infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet,” at last sees it open its eyes and breathe—are unmistakable. And the birth of the “creature,” as he calls it at first, occurs only after “days and nights of incredible labor and fatigue”; later he refers again to the “painful labor.”
Ruth Franklin does note Mary’s familiarity with the electrical experiments by Giovanni Aldini and the classic literary interpretation that Frankenstein was about the hubris of pure intellectualism. The passages she uses for evidence of the influences of Mary’s pregnancy are compelling. It is possible that both the science experiments she read of and witnessed, along with her pregnancies influenced her imagination and her work. The possibilities are not exclusive of one another.
Answering the question, can you get funky in French, BEN L’ONCLE SOUL – SOULMAN- (Official Music Video)
Written and directed by Nassim Maoui and Christophe Mentz