We generally think of modern astronomy as beginning with Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 24 May 1543) the first person known to document a heliocentric view of the cosmos. His theories were set forth in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres)
This volume is the first edition of the work that set forth evidence that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun. Written by Polish astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published just before his death, the work was met by tremendous opposition because it contradicted religious beliefs of the time. The Copernican views provided the basis for the later work of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Galileo (1564-1642), and Isaac Newton (1642-1727).
Someone may have made this discovery about the orbits of the earth and moon around the sun much earlier. Not only did they make the discovery a couple thousand years before Copernicus, they made an analog computer to make predictions about the movement of the planets and the seasons. They or him or her seemed to have also embraced the scientific study of the nature of time and the heavens. The Antikythera Mechanism was an ancient, what some have called analog astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 B.C. The fragments were discovered off the island of Antikythera, north of Crete in 1900, accidentally by sponge divers. It has been theorized that concept for the mechanism’s concept originated in the colonies of Corinth or perhaps ancient Syracuse. The scientists said this implied a likely connection with Archimedes. It is known that Archimedes lived in Syracuse, dying there in 212 BC. Not much of his original writing he was known to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his time. he would have known the mathematics involved in calculating volumes of surfaces of revolution, calculate the area under a parabola and he invented his own method for calculating infinite series. Clearly he had the kind of mind and had left enough evidence of his tremendous analytical abilities to have conceived of such a device. Further evidence lies in decoding the month names on the fragments of the Antikythera Mechanism. Those names are of Corinthian origin. Ancient Corinth was located on a narrow stretch of land between Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. That calendar is known to have first been used by the Babylonian astronomers whose knowledge had greatly influenced Greek culture. This the Metonic calendar was designed to reconcile the lengths of the lunar month with the solar year. Those two measurements are not exact compliments. Twelve lunar months are about 11 days short of a year. Though in a cycle lasting 235 lunar months is almost exactly 19 years. If one was able to calculate this they could construct a artificial mathematical device based calendar that keeps in synchronization with both the sun and the moon. It is also known that the pan-Hellenic occurred in a four-year cycle ( inspiration for the modern Olympics) and some of the inscriptions also show that one of the instrument’s dials measured those four-year cycles. The calendar on the mechanism also matches that of ancient calendars from Illyria and Epirus in northwestern Greece and with the island of Corfu.
Researchers are still examining the device and announcement are made at the The Antikythera Mechanism Project.
There are some good graphics here – Full Resolution PTM Downloads of the
The Antikythera mechanism page at Wikipedia. There are a lot of good article citations at the bottom.
There have been several attempts to make a modern reconstruction of the mechanism. This is not exact. It is an artistic interpretation by Tatjana J. van Vark. There are several more views various angles available at the link.
Interpretation of the The Antikythera Mechanism (2007) by Tatjana J. van Vark.
National Television – Channel 4 – The Bank Job. This is a commercial for a TV show, but it is also an amazing combination of graphic design elements including illustration, mazes, animation and complimentary colors and contrasts.
The gift that gives year round, the flood of dark money into politics, Secret donors put Indiana Gov. Mitch Daniels on the air to make dubious anti-union claims
It’s not just the source of the funding that’s a mystery. In the ads, Daniels makes the unsubstantiated claim that “The good is when Indiana gets a chance to compete for new jobs, we’re winning two-thirds of the time. But we get cut out of a third of all deals because we don’t provide workers the protection known as right to work.” Where does that one third figure come from? No one knows, and Daniels isn’t telling. One Indiana newspaper editorializes:
Mr. Daniels, you’ve mentioned that one-third figure several times. And Mr. Bosma, that same logic made right-to-work legislation the Indiana House GOP’s top agenda item – one that promises to consume just about every ounce of political capital available at the Statehouse this session.
We ask: What businesses ignored us because Indiana isn’t a right-to-work state? And where did those businesses land during this recession? We’d like to get them to tell Hoosiers their side.
Right now, the arguments for right to work are held up as if on clouds. Have faith, Hoosiers; Indiana will be better off as a right-to-work state.
This is the foundational claim of Republican attempts to sell RTW as good for workers, yet they have offered absolutely no evidence to back it up. They’ve offered tortured, misleading statistics suggesting that RTW states do better economically, but they can’t even gin up that level of false evidence about a third of companies not wanting to move to Indiana because of its labor laws. But $600,000 of advertising is a nice big platform for a lie.
This is the kind of institutional lie frequently used by zealots. While some believe the lie, those that create the narrative in the first place see it as a necessary even noble lie justified by the goals of the zealots. A campaign tactic probably as old as the Antikythera mechanism. Though the ancient Greeks could have hired the world’s best army and might have survived as a culture with the kind of money right-wing sugar daddies are pumping into modern American politics.