In the early 1900s, scientists discovered that each person belonged to one of four blood types. Now they have discovered a new way to classify humanity: by bacteria. Each human being is host to thousands of different species of microbes. Yet a group of scientists now report just three distinct ecosystems in the guts of people they have studied.
[ ]…The microbes alter the gut so that only certain species can follow them.
Whatever the cause of the different enterotypes, they may end up having discrete effects on people’s health. Gut microbes aid in food digestion and synthesize vitamins, using enzymes our own cells cannot make.
Dr. Bork and his colleagues have found that each of the types makes a unique balance of these enzymes. Enterotype 1 produces more enzymes for making vitamin B7 (also known as biotin), for example, and Enterotype 2 more enzymes for vitamin B1 (thiamine).
The discovery of the blood types A, B, AB and O had a major effect on how doctors practice medicine. They could limit the chances that a patient’s body would reject a blood transfusion by making sure the donated blood was of a matching type.
There may be more bacteria-enterotypes in humans, but researchers have not studied very many ethnic groups. It would be interesting to know how these bacteria establish themselves in some people and not others. How your colony of bacteria affects your life. Some bacteria and most of the bacteria that lives in the human body is beneficial – a mutualistic symbiotic mutualistic. Is this why some people seem to resist some ailments while others get them. Does this explain obesity in some way or why some people are more energetic than others. Or why people react differently to the same oral medication.
As of today anyway, the definitive article on Apple and its phone tracking, How Apple tracks your location without consent, and why it matters
Researchers Alasdair Allan and Pete Warden revealed their findings on Wednesday ahead of their presentation at the Where 2.0 conference taking place in San Francisco. The two discovered that the iPhone or 3G iPad—anything with 3G data access, so no iPod touch—are logging location data to a file called consolidated.db with latitude and longitude coodinates and a timestamp. The data collection appears to be associated with the launch of iOS 4 last June, meaning that many users (us at Ars included) have nearly a year’s worth of stalking data collected.
Besides the ridiculous meme that rising revenue is not part of our federal budget problems is the Republican insistence they are not attacking Social Security. The least one can say about their full frontal assault on Medicare is that, if you read the numbers, it is almost an honest attack. They are coming at Social Security through the back gate, Paul Ryan and Republican Assault on Medicare Would Unravel the Value of Social Security Benefits
These cuts amount to a direct assault on the purchasing power of Social Security – as well as any other source of retirement savings a person has amassed. The government may as well send seniors their Social Security checks with a forwarding envelope to send right along to the private insurance companies waiting to collect! In the zero-sum world of retirement security programs, cuts in one program necessarily damage the goals of another. The Ryan plan threatens the entire foundation of programs we have established to care for our elderly for three important reasons…
By the year would eventually cut Medicare benefits by 75%. That means that most retirees – who are generally on a fixed income – will have to find some way to pay for these new out-of-pocket costs. Many seniors only have one other source of income, Social Security. So they’ll be using their limited income that would have gone for food, shelter and other essential, to pay for the extra insurance they need or paying medical charges directly. Children or the disabled who depend on Medicare will not even have Social Security to fall back on. The Ryan/Republican plan has a nice giveaway to corporations and contains yet another tax cut for the wealthiest one percent of Americans.
The other day I mentioned the heritage Foundation has a tendency to manipulate their numbers. They did that with their unbiased critical analysis of Ryan’s numbers – The Economic Effects of the Ryan Plan: Assuming the Answer? . Paul Krugamn at the NYT caught them and instead of proving him wrong, they and their sycophantic conservative bloggers have been calling him names. Sticks and stones and all that don’t change the math.