wood bowling wallpaper, the homestead act, some history and economics

pop art, graphic art, wallpaper

wood bowling wallpaper

 

Document Deep Dive: How the Homestead Act Transformed America

One hundred and fifty years ago this month (May), President Abraham Lincoln launched the greatest land giveaway in U.S. history and destined Ken Deardorff for one of the longest nights of his life.

The Homestead Act, signed by Lincoln on May 20, 1862, embodied a radical promise: free land for the masses. Until then the federal government had generally sold its unoccupied property, favoring men with capital. As a result, by the 1840s big farms were consuming smaller ones, and efforts to change the system were gridlocked as Congressional debate over slavery intensified. The problem became so pressing that Representative Galusha Grow, a Pennsylvania Republican, warned in 1860 that the nation was courting “a system of land monopoly—one of the direst, deadliest curses that ever paralyzed the energies of a nation or palsied the arm of industry.”

[  ]…From the moment the first homesteader, Daniel Freeman, stepped foot into his local land office in 1863 to apply for 160 acres in Beatrice, Nebraska, to the day in 1979 when the last homesteader, Ken Deardorff, of Alaska, filed for a title to his 50-acre claim, four million settlers—men and women, former slaves and new immigrants—attempted it. About 1.6 million succeeded, homesteading a combined total of 270 million acres, or 10 percent of the country.

Some of the commentary following the article suggests that the Smithsonian does a disservice to the history of native Americans by not mentioning the genocidal consequences of the Homestead Act. That issue aside for the moment the Homestead Act was a huge land giveaway. While it caused some tremendous pain for a lot of indigenous peoples it also was an economically progressive act. Until the HA the federal government sold land to the wealthy. We were becoming a nation of a few haves and mostly have nots. An important facet of U.S. history for those who think now we’re slipping into some kind of socialistic paradise. That said there were consequences for tribes that had lived on those lands for centuries, “In California, the decrease from about a quarter of a million to less than 20,000 is primarily due to the cruelties and wholesale massacres perpetrated by the miners and early settlers.” There was an Indian Homestead Act or Dawes Act. This was an attempt to make members of the tribes into individual land owners, and to make their culture more into that resembling white European settlers. It was hardly a fair trade. A tribe may have had access to historical territory of hundreds of thousands of acres. Forcing Indians into even 100 acre homesteads and further forcing the adoption of lifestyles that did not suit them was hardly a fair trade. The Dawes Act turned into a debacle.

“Walter Davidson, the first president of the Harley Davidson Motor Company, poses with his bike after winning the 1908 Federation of American Motorcyclists’ endurance run.” (copyrighted image). A little American steampunk and turns the Harley-Davidson stereotype of the bearded tattooed denim wearing biker on its head.

Alex Cassie, Who Aided ‘Great Escape’ From Nazis, Dies at 95. The movie with James garner, Steve McQueen and Donald Pleasence ( who played a character based on Cassie) was not historically accurate , but Cassie was the master forger/artist in the movie, talents he had in real life.

Chevron’s Quarterly Profit Is Up To $6.5 Billion, Production Is Down, Tax Rate Is Still Lower Than Yours.

Bush and the RNC filled every government post they could with cronies – Even After Bush Scandals, GOP Still Politicizing Civil Service. They believeeee in small govmint.

Green Day – When I Come Around

wet dandelion seeds wallpaper, the philosophy of science is obsolete, romney’s usa – a modern serfdom

rain drops, blue, nature, macro

wet dandelion seeds wallpaper

 

Has Physics Made Philosophy and That Other Thing Obsolete?

I want to start with a general question about the relationship between philosophy and physics. There has been a fair amount of sniping between these two disciplines over the past few years. Why the sudden, public antagonism between philosophy and physics?

Krauss: That’s a good question. I expect it’s because physics has encroached on philosophy. Philosophy used to be a field that had content, but then “natural philosophy” became physics, and physics has only continued to make inroads. Every time there’s a leap in physics, it encroaches on these areas that philosophers have carefully sequestered away to themselves, and so then you have this natural resentment on the part of philosophers. This sense that somehow physicists, because they can’t spell the word “philosophy,” aren’t justified in talking about these things, or haven’t thought deeply about them—

Is that really a claim that you see often?

Krauss: It is. Philosophy is a field that, unfortunately, reminds me of that old Woody Allen joke, “those that can’t do, teach, and those that can’t teach, teach gym.” And the worst part of philosophy is the philosophy of science; the only people, as far as I can tell, that read work by philosophers of science are other philosophers of science. It has no impact on physics what so ever, and I doubt that other philosophers read it because it’s fairly technical. And so it’s really hard to understand what justifies it. And so I’d say that this tension occurs because people in philosophy feel threatened, and they have every right to feel threatened, because science progresses and philosophy doesn’t.

For those who are familiar with theoretical physicist Lawrence Krauss, you know that he likes to be provocative. he does not walk back his criticisms of philosophy further on in the interview as much as stops being facetious and addresses some of the positive aspects of philosophy such as moral theory, in this era that largely means applied morality via politics and public policy. I found it interesting that Krauss gives literature a lot of credit in terms of descriptive philosophy, though he includes logic – which when done well is just math. There is a somewhat esoteric aspect to asking about what is true, what is knowledge, what does the universe exists instead of nothingness and how do we know what we know. What does that have to do with the price of bread and milk. Yet wheat is grown on scientific principles, and while a wheat farmer can work up an ulcer worrying and hoping, real physical phenomenon make the wheat grow or succumb to bad weather, drought or disease. What we know and how we figure out what the truth is always makes its way into the decisions we make at the dinner table, and the offices of people with more money and power than the average person.

air travel poster

Romney bashes Obama for “making us like Europe.” But he’s the one pushing failed European austerity measures. Because of supply-side economics the U.S. has sunk into conditions where the modern equivalent of dukes and queens have most of the power and the majority of people are modern serfs. Conservatives admit this in a round about way when they discuss the safety net and unemployment. They claim that the hardest workers have just naturally risen to the top. While everyone below is leaching off the wealthy – who are all virtuous and enterprising. The U.S. is thus slanted in the economic and political dynamic of old Europe because nature intended it that way.

Via Seabed Habitats -one of the WordPress neighbors – The Secret Life of Plankton