action indeed is the sole medium of expression for ethics, the personhood sham continues, legislating for the 99 percent

Doing the Ethical Thing May Be Right, but It Isn’t Automatic

As much as we would like to think that, put on the spot, we would do the right — and perhaps even heroic — thing, research has shown that that usually isn’t true.

“People are routinely more willing to be critical of others’ ethics than of their own,” said Francesca Gino, an associate professor at Harvard Business School, and two other authors in the journal article “See No Evil: When We Overlook Other People’s Unethical Behavior.” The article appeared as a chapter in the book “Social Decision Making” (Psychology Press, 2009). “People believe they are more honest and trustworthy than others and they try harder to do good.”

 

One of the experiments in ethics Tugend references is the Stanley Milgram in the early 1960s. That experiment attempted to find an explanation as to why or how mass lapses of ethics, as in the Nazi death camps could happen. Milgram found that people were willing to inflect pain on others ( the subjects were led to believe they were applying electric shocks for each wrong answer to a list of questions) if authority figures said that it was OK to do so. Many people were troubled by the fake screams of the victims, though most proceeded with the shocks anyway. If they said they wanted to stop the experiment supervisor would give them three prompts – Please continue.The experiment requires that you continue. It is absolutely essential that you continue. You have no other choice, you must go on. – Most of the participants would continue. There were some ethical issues with the experiment itself, even though no one was actually electrically shocked, many of the participant did suffer from emotional trauma. Astounding to me was that some of the participants said they continued because they did not want to be rude to the person ( the authority figure) conducting the experiment.

There is a link to this paper which goes into how unethical behavior can become the norm - When misconduct goes unnoticed: The acceptability of gradual erosion in others’ unethical behavior (pdf). Just one paragraph from the introduction,

Four laboratory studies show that people are more likely to accept others’ unethical behavior when ethical degradation occurs slowly rather than in one abrupt shift. Participants served in the role of watchdogs charged with catching instances of cheating. The watchdogs in our studies were less likely to criticize the actions of others when their behavior eroded gradually, over time, rather than in one abrupt shift. We refer to this phenomenon as the slippery-slope effect. Our studies also demonstrate that at least part of this effect can be attributed to implicit biases that result in a failure to notice ethical erosion when it occurs slowly. Broadly, our studies provide evidence as to when and why people accept cheating by others and examine the conditions under which the slippery-slope effect occurs. (emphasis mine)

 

Even though I am already familiar with these studies including the Philip G. Zimbardo experiments at Stanford University in the Stanford Prison Experiment where students very quickly engaged in sadistic behavior towards pretend prisoners – reading about how easily and quickly morality breaks down is depressing. There is hope. In the Milgram experiment a few did refuse to continue. In addition Professor Zimbardo has set up the Heroic Imagination Project, already implemented in a few California schools. The project’s aim is to teach people how they can act individually to be cognizant of ethically compromising situations and still do the right thing.

One of the aspects of societal, governmental or corporate culture that weighs against acting ethically is how groups respond to whistle-blowers – the example they use in the NYT article. In most cultures people grow up with the peer pressure attached to being a “rat” or a tattletale. I was amazed at once hearing a grown man who was harassing an employee call someone a rat for reporting his behavior to upper management. Like most people I let some everyday behavior slide as long as no one is getting hurt, but when you report someone for being threatening, trying to intimidate someone, you’re not a rat, you’re a decent human being. One of the things discovered in a study by some Australian researchers (When groups are wrong and deviants are right*) is that we say we admire people who stand up for the right thing, but in actual practice a peer group ( co-workers, students, police, politicians) can be hostile toward the person who went against the prevailing group behavior. People might respect rats and whistle-blowers, but not like them or feel uncomfortable around them.

“Action indeed is the sole medium of expression for ethics.” – Jane Addams

“A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon this world.” – Albert Camus

*Deviant as used here is in the classical sociological definition of any behavior which has been deemed different from norms established by the group. If you lived in a small village in 1649 and did not attend church services on Sunday that would have made you a deviant within that group.

pond reflection autumn colors wallpaper

Personhood Proponents To Rebrand, Revamp Effort

Anti-abortion forces are pushing ahead with the so-called personhood initiatives, despite suffering defeat in Mississippi, where a mostly conservative electorate soundly rejected the notion that life should begin at conception. The group, Personhood USA, plans to hold a press conference later today to announce their renewed efforts to pursue personhood amendments in Colorado, Oregon, and Montana…

[  ]…Personhood initiatives have failed twice before in Colorado by a 3-1 margin, as the medical community and women’s groups used public forums to “cast the measure as misguided, arguing that, beyond ending abortion, declaring fertilization as the starting point for life would lead to a prohibition of emergency contraception in rape cases and limit treatment for miscarriages, tubal pregnancies and infertility.”

 

I wonder about the ethics of forcing other people to believe that the rights of a zygote are greater than that of a 16 or 32 year human being.

Landscape with House and Ploughman, 1889 Vincent Van Gogh.

Some pretty smart people, one here - Here’s what attempted co-option of OWS looks like - have argued that OWS does not need to mature and evolve into an actual political force that gets legislation passed and people elected who truly represent the interests of the 99%. Certainly the real world of politics or joining the corporate world to change it from the inside are akin to diving into a mud bath. Still I’m not so sure that is not the way to go. Nicholas D. Kristof argues OWS has already succeeded in changing the national focus of the conversation about the economy, Occupy the Agenda

The high ground that the protesters seized is not an archipelago of parks in America, but the national agenda. The movement has planted economic inequality on the nation’s consciousness, and it will be difficult for any mayor or police force to dislodge it.

A reporter for Politico found that use of the words “income inequality” quintupled in a news database after the Occupy protests began. That’s a significant achievement, for this is an issue that goes to our country’s values and our opportunities for growth — and yet we in the news business have rarely given it the attention it deserves.

The statistic that takes my breath away is this: The top 1 percent of Americans possess a greater net worth than the entire bottom 90 percent, according to an analysis by the Economic Policy Institute.

 

Kristof also thinks the Super Committee Democrats and Democrats behind the scene dug in their heels to protect Medicare because of OWS. Maybe. Politicians generally only fear one thing – not being reelected. Unless OWS can make that a permanent state of mind in regards to the 99% it seems doubtful this effect will last for long. I have not noticed much difference in Wall Street’s behavior. One item on OWS’s semi-agenda was Bank Change Day. That did seem to scare off some of the big banks from enacting the new debit card fees they were talking about.

The Whales of Three Deserts

How did 75 whales end up in the desert? Rows of prehistoric bones unearthed in one of the most significant discoveries of its kind

Some believe they became disoriented and beached themselves, while others claim they were moved by a landslide and became trapped in a lagoon.

But scientists remain baffled as to how exactly scores of whales ended up in a desert more than half a mile from the sea.

The skeletons of 75 whales, believed to be more than two millions years old, were unearthed next to one another, just yards apart, in one of the world’s best-preserved graveyards of prehistoric whales.

 

Chilean scientists and researchers from the Smithsonian Institution are studying how the whales, many of them the size of buses, were found in exactly the same corner of the Atacama Desert in Chile.

 

This story reminded me of another large find of whale fossils in the desert in Egypt. Valley of the Whales. An Egyptian desert, once an ocean, holds the secret to one of evolution’s most remarkable transformations.

Thirty-seven million years ago, in the waters of the prehistoric Tethys Ocean, a sinuous, 50-foot-long beast with gaping jaws and jagged teeth died and sank to the seafloor.

Over thousands of millennia a mantle of sediment built up over its bones. The sea receded, and as the former seabed became a desert, the wind began to plane away the sandstone and shale above the bones. Slowly the world changed. Shifts in the Earth’s crust pushed India into Asia, heaving up the Himalaya. In Africa, the first human ancestors stood up on their hind legs to walk. The pharaohs built their pyramids. Rome rose, Rome fell. And all the while the wind continued its patient excavation. Then one day Philip Gingerich showed up to finish the job.

 

Two mysterious mass graves of ancient whales is intriguing enough, but three is even better. In the summer of 2010 the L.A. Times reported on a find of one whale fossil in the Peruvian desert, Giant whale fossil found in desert in Peru

Paleontologists have discovered remnants of the fossilized skull of an ancient whale in a Peruvian desert — and named it after Herman Melville, the author of “Moby Dick.”

The newly discovered species, Leviathan melvillei, lived about 12 million years ago. Scientists believe it feasted on smaller whales that shared what were oceans at the time, as seen in the artist’s rendering at left.

The international team that discovered the fossil announced its findings last week in the journal Nature. The whale skull was found in late 2008 in the Pisco-Ica desert in southern Peru, known as a veritable “Jurassic park” for paleontologists.

Upon catching glimpse of the whale skull’s giant teeth, the researchers at first thought they had come across elephant tusks.

“This part of the Peruvian coast, about 500 kilometers south of Lima, is probably the richest place in the world for fossil marine mammals,” says one of the scientists involved in the study, in this video at Nature.

 

This video is of the fossil find in Egypt, Whales of the Desert